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国际工程实践中,银行保函内容之不同对其效力有何影响?

作者: 时间:2018-12-28

导语

Introduction

“在国际工程项目中,业主、总包商、承包商、供货商、服务商等等之间由于地域、文化、语言、法律环境等方面的不同,在交易过程中往往需要第三方银行的担保,以保证其对方义务的履行,银行保函便是其中很重要很典型的担保之一。

In the international project, usually, there exists much difference of the geography, culture, language and legal circumstances. The Principals, Contractors, Sub-Contractors, Suppliers and other stakeholders tend to seek for some surety from third party-the bank to secure the counterparty’s performance. Bank guarantee is typically one having the most importance.


银行保函的类型有很多种,例如投标保函、履约保函、预付款保函、滞留金保函、海关费保函等等。保函等方面的细微不同则有可能造成其意义和效力上的很大不同。下面我将以不可撤销的无条件银行保函的案例进行启发性解释

There are varieties of bank guarantees, such as bid bond, performance bond, down payment bond, detention bond and customs bond. A subtle difference in wording may lead to great violation in its meaning and effectiveness. Below, I’ll take one cases for writings in the irrevocable and unconditional bank for example to cast the light.”


案例

Case Review


(为保护隐私,文中公司为化名)

一家叫力燃公司的中国驻阿联酋分支企业(简称甲方),期望一家专业性的设计公司为其工程项目提供设计服务,于是与一家非常知名的伟业设计公司的加拿大企业(简称乙方)达成了合作协议,根据协议约定,甲方应当以5%银行保函的形式为其履约提供保证,该保函应当是与合同价格相同的无条件不可撤销的银行保函。后在保函起草沟通确认过程中,乙方提供应添加“如果出现未能履行情况时,甲方应在向银行提交保函前,至少提前10天通知乙方”。当时甲方工作人员认为是该要求合理,故同意了银行保函中添加该内容。

A company named Power Gas Company (referred to as Party A), desirous of a professional engineering company to provide design service for its project, engaged with a well-known company named Great Designer Group (referred to as Party B). As per the agreement between them, Party B “shall provide a Performance Security in the form of “performance bond” in the amount of 5% of the Subcontract Price. And it shall be guaranteed and undertaken irrevocably and unconditionally in same currency of Subcontract Price.” When the draft form of guarantee is sent to Party B for check, Party B propose that a clause should be added that: “If the performance bond is presented to the bank for payment in case of any breach, the Contractor shall be informed at least 10 days ahead”, and Party A agreed to add this clause because they thought it’s reasonable. 


后来乙方未能按照协议规定履行义务,甲方将保函提交银行时,银行经审核,认为无条件不可撤销保函不应当附有任何条件,而提前通知义务,属于基础合同关系,需要对方配合证明。银行不负有该审查义务,故予以拒绝。

It turned out that Party B failed to duly fulfill its obligations in compliance with the agreement, and Party A presented the performance bond to the bank asking for the guaranteed compensation. But the bank rejected Party A’s claims on the ground that an unconditional bank guarantee shouldn’t be furnished with any conditions and would become an conditional bank guarantee if any conditions were included. 


注意事项

Notes

工程保函经常有两种形式,即见索即付保函,是一种无条件不可撤销的保函,另一种是一般保证保函,是有条件的。在该两种保函中,受益人与保证人的权利不同:

Construction guarantees typically take one of the two forms, namely an on-demand or call guarantee, which is unconditional, and a suretyship guarantee, which is conditional. The right of the holder and the obligations of the guarantor under these two guarantee differ:


对见索即付保函中,保证人承担第一位的主要义务,对业主赔偿负有同等责任。该保证责任独立于主合同,无论中合同的履行情况,如果有任何条件被考虑进该保函,则该保函的性质都可能会发生变化。

In on-demand guarantees, the guarantor takes the first primary obligations, equivalent to an indemnity to the Employer.The guarantees operate independently of the degree of performance or non-performance of the principal contract. They are effectively the equivalent of a promissory note payable on demand. But there is any conditions taken into the guarantee, then the effect of the on-demand payment and dependence may change.


一般保证保函基于特定事件而发生,通常需要承包商的的配合。 这种保函附属于基础主合同,如果基础合同无效,则会导致一般保证保函的效力受到影响。

Suretyship guarantees are conditional on a particular event(or events), commonly on the satisfactory performance of the contractor. These guarantees are accessory to the principal agreement, and there can be no obligation where the principal obligation they refer to is not valid or effective.


作者:王景占,法学硕士,天津博专律师事务所律师。曾先后供职于人民法院、天津依法律师事务所、天津桐江律师事务所、石油管道局某海外公司、石油集团某深海勘探处等。现为天津博专律师事务所专职律师,主要承办国际贸易、国际工程、跨境投资与并购、海事海商、经济诈骗、涉外知识产权等诉讼类及非诉类案件。


Mr.Wang Jingzhan: Master of Laws, an attorney from Tianjin Bozhuan Law Firm.

He has ever pursued his legal career and worked for a law court, Tianjin Yifa law Firm, Tianjin Blessing Law Firm, CPP overseas branch and BGP Marine. Now, he is practicing law as an attorney in Tianjin Bozhuan Law Firm, his primary area of practice as following: International Trade, International Project, Transnational Investment and M&A, Marine Disputes, Business Fraud, Foreign-related Intellectual Property and etc. 


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